The information that you enter via a web page or the information that we encounter on the PC is limited by certain basic characters or numbers we use for composing all information. The reason we see 256 characters is because the computer uses binary numbers. A number that is to the base 10 has 9 digits between 0 and 9.All other numbers are combinations of the basic 9 digits. Similarly a number in binary form has 0 or 1. So a binary base number of length 8 can hold up 2 (power) 8 digits or 256 characters or numbers. The character A is represented by the ASCII value of 65. The binary equivalent of the decimal 65 is 00010001. Similarly the number 1 is represented by the ascii value of 49, which binary equivalent is 00011001.
The numeric value represented in each case is dependent upon the value assigned to each symbol. In a computer, the numeric values may be represented by two different voltages; on a magnetic disk, magnetic polarities may be used. A "positive", "yes", or "on" state is not necessarily equivalent to the numerical value of one; it depends on the architecture in use. In keeping with regular representation of numerals using Arabic numerals, binary numbers are commonly written using the symbols 0 and 1 . Using 0 and 1 all combinations can be composed.
The 0 -1 paradigm is termed as a classical computer. In order to represent each and every character one must use parallel spaces. For example 8 bits that exist as 00011001 can not exist as 00001001. In order to use 00001001 one must recode the sequence again the hard disk. So in a classical computer a sequence of characters can exist only one at a time.
But the classical computer itself is only an approximation, there are more basic barriers of atoms and electrons that are constantly circulating the portions that form the disk. So essentially the hard disk that is used for holding character values by encoding voltages has a constant source of atoms that compose the disk. This essentially is a time shift and a new paradigm of thought. The new paradigm that uses the basic building blocks of matter to compute is termed as quantum computing. Quantum refers to phenomena exhibited by atoms and electrons whereas computing refer to performing information retrieval, storage and other activities.
Since a quantum computer uses properties of atoms, any amount of combinations of 0 and 1 can exist simultaneously. Our atomic theory states that electrons have either 1 plus 1/2 spin or – 1/2 spin. Using the spin combination one gets a summation of chances of finding an expected value along a particular time path of an electron around the nucleus of an atom. This implies that all the values that exist independently in the classic computer can now exist simulataneously, but as a superposition of states. The result is significantly increased storage and computational powers. The current RSA algorithm that is used for encryption has found to be capable in polynomial time using a quantum computer.
The discovery of Quantum computing is largely accredited to the late noble laureate Dr Feynman. Once again time has proved that what you see is not what you get. Generations after generations will see new discoveries that will redefine our existing understanding of occurrences and ourventions. Research is underway at major institutions, but it may well be several decades before a quantum computer becomes common place.